Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. More specifically, as the field of study of intelligent agents, which refers to any system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. The term applied to systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. Despite continuing advances in computer processing speed and memory capacity, there are as yet no programs that can match human flexibility over wider domains or in tasks requiring much everyday knowledge. On the other hand, some programs have attained the performance levels of human experts and professionals in performing certain specific tasks, so that artificial intelligence in this limited sense is found in applications as diverse as medical diagnosis, computer search engines, and voice or handwriting recognition.

Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous Vehicles (AV) or driverless vehicle, is a vehicle capable of sensing its environment and operating without human involvement. One that is able to operate itself and perform necessary functions without any human intervention, through ability to sense its surroundings. An autonomous vehicle utilizes a fully automated driving system in order to allow the vehicle to respond to external conditions that a human driver would manage.


Bias can be defined as either an over-or under-estimation of the true value or characteristic of what you are measuring or judging. Bias can be conscious or unconscious and often is interpreted as prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.

Big Data

Big Data is a content area that uses large and voluminous data sets compiled and stored over time by huge organizations and ventures. The data sets are huge and complex in many formats making it beyond the analytic capabilities of traditional methods. It is used to discover patterns and trends and make decisions related to human behavior and interaction technology. It is a technique for tracking and discovering trends in complex data set used mainly for business and consumer behavior purposes.

Coral Imagery

Corals are marine invertebrates which typically form compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. Coral species include the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton. The slow growth of polyps and expansion of the hard skeletal structures build up the permanent coral reef structure over time.

Cross-sectional Research

Researchers conduct a cross-sectional survey to collect insights from a target audience at a particular time interval. This survey research method is implemented in various sectors such as retail, education, healthcare, and small to medium size businesses. Cross-sectional survey research can either be descriptive or analytical. It is quick and helps researchers collected information in a brief period. Researchers rely on cross-sectional survey research method in situations where descriptive analysis of a subject is required.

Crystal Formation

A crystal is a solid material formed by a repeating, three-dimensional pattern of atoms, ions, or molecules and having fixed distances between constituent parts that are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. The internal arrangement of atoms determines all the minerals’ chemical and physical properties, including color. The majority of minerals and organic molecules can crystallize  easily into stable structures. Attributes of crystals depend largely on factors such as temperature, air pressure, and in the case of liquid crystals, time of fluid evaporation. Geological science identifies the structures and determinates their structure.

Data Science

Data Science is a field or domain which includes and involves working with a huge amount of data and using it for building predictive, prescriptive, and prescriptive analytical models while analyzing and validating models and best practices. Data science is a multidisciplinary field that uses different techniques and practices the is conceptual with the intent of building data-dominant products for a venture. It provides ways to discover, extract, analyze, compile, visualize, process, and present data without having an issue with the data size. It applies to many fields such as economics, marketing, business, medicine, finance, social sciences, geo-location, etc. Three areas overlap: computer science (for the design and execution of algorithms), statistical science (for mathematical modeling of data sets) and expertise in the subject or domain (to formulate the right questions, to put the answers in context and recognize when decision errors appear).

Empirical Research

Empirical Research is a type of research methodology that makes use of verifiable evidence in order to arrive at research outcomes. This  type of research relies solely on evidence obtained through observation or scientific data collection methods. Empirical research can be conducted and analyzed using qualitative or quantitative methods.

Experimental Method

Experimental Method is the progressive steps of conducting research in an objective and controlled fashion. Principles of experimental design are embedded in the logic of the scientific method. While the causal basis of an outcome is not always to demonstrate, factual outcomes can come from well-designed experiments, careful observation, and systematic analysis of data.

Focus Groups

A focus group is a research method that uses a small group of people to answer questions in a highly scripted and moderated setting. Observations of the group’s dynamics, answers to questions, body language can guide future research on consumer decisions, products and services, or controversial topics. Focus groups are interactive and discursive way to understand peoples’ experiences, feelings, thoughts and attitudes and how those have changed as a result of interaction with target products or ideas.


For hundreds of years people have noticed patterns that were repeated in elements of nature and wildlife. For example, flowers have layers and layers of petals that are arranged in a specific pattern. Turns out fractal math can explain these occurrences. A fractal is a geometric shape containing detailed structure which is mathematically scalable. Fractals are generated by applying iterative methods to solving non-linear equations or polynomial equations. Fractal art is a form of algorithmic art generally created by computer by calculating fractal objects and representing the calculation results as still digital images, animations, and media. Nature and art have underlying generative mathematic principles.

In-depth interviews

In-depth interviews are a qualitative data collection method that allows for the gathering of large amount of information about the behavior, attitude and perception of a knowledgeable interviewee. As they are interactive and generative, there is the opportunity to get to the root causes of likes/dislikes, perceptions, or beliefs in context. It requires an understanding of industry shifts, changing consumer needs and preferences, legislative trends and other markers that shape where a business chooses to focus its efforts and resources.

Longitudinal Research

Longitudinal Research involves conducting a study over time, sometimes spread across years or decades. The data collected using research method from one time period can be qualitative, quantitative or a combination. Respondent behavior, preferences, attitudes are continuously observed over time to analyze reasons for a change in behavior or preferences.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning Algorithms on the web essentially replicates the decision-making processes of the human. The algorithm “learns” your preferences and takes them into account during your next set of decisions. Based on the way you interact with earlier sources, the algorithms try to show you more of what it thinks you prefer.

Market Research

Market Research describes the size, location, makeup and dynamics a marketplace. It involves gathering and evaluation of data regarding consumers' preferences for products and services as well as the size scope and potential of that space.


A process or technique of synthesizing research results by using various statistical methods to retrieve, select, and combine results from previous separate but related studies.


Murmuration - the science and decisions behind it. Murmuration is the synchronized activity of a large group of birds while flying together and change direction together with stunningly fast response to others in the flock without following a group leader. Murmurations are self-organized, meaning that it's the individual that follows behavioral rules that make it scale up to the large group. Each bird keeps tabs on its seven closest neighbors and ignores all else. All of these little groups of seven touch on other individuals and groups of seven, twists and turns quickly spread. Scientists have found that insects and fish demonstrate similar collective animal behavior based. Understanding the science of murmuration has formed the basis of the AI field of swarm robotics.

Niche Market

Niche Market is a small subset of the total market that is identified by a unique set of needs, identities  or preferences. These needs may flow from price, location interests, attitude toward the product or idiosyncrasy factors. Customers in niche markets typically have more brand loyalty to small businesses because they have unique needs, preferences and identities. They are a better fit than the mass market offering.

Origami & Science

Origamists have the vision to see art in a simple piece of paper with mathematical boundaries. RDA uncovers powerful, business-rich data from strategic statistics and surveys. We show you how analyzing data creatively delivers research that can improve your bottom line.

Pilot Study

Pilot Study is a feasibility study conducted before a large scale study to collect preliminary data and evaluate potential for hypotheses, implementation, and meaningful insights.

Randomized Controlled Trial

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of scientific experiment used to control factors not under direct experimental control. Participants who enroll in randomized RCTs differ from one another in known and unknown ways that can influence study outcomes, and yet cannot be directly controlled. By randomly allocating participants among compared treatments, an RCT enables statistical control over these confounding factors to deliver a useful comparison of the treatments studied.

Retrospective Study

Retrospective Study a type of research in which an existing data set such as a large collection of patient charts or other medical data is studied. A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition. For example, one group may have been exposed to a particular substance that the other was not. Also called case-control study.


Robot is a machine programmable by a computer capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically replaces human effort. Using artificial Intelligence robots are currently able to navigate a variety of environments, gather data about their environment and execute complex tasks. The promise of more human -like activities based on preferences and understanding the environment is for the future.

Strategic Market Research

Strategic Market Research is based on understanding the market environment for the organization, its customer and the competition. This research is fundamental to the planning function for positioning new products, services and ideas. Market strategy guides organizational development, product /service implementation plans. The information necessary to form and execute a strategic market plan is generally nor easily accessible. It must be defined, collected and analyzed. Market research supporting this effort is both qualitative and quantitative.

Survey Research

Survey Research is a quantitative method to collect information from a pool of respondents by asking a series of questions from a designed survey. The data collected from surveys is then statistically analyzed to draw meaningful research conclusions.

Tax Exempt Organizations 501 (c)

Tax Exempt Organizations 501 (c) is a section of the federal regulations which list the type of companies that can be exempt from paying taxes according to the IRS. There are 27 types of organizations that can file for 501(c) status. Many of these are not applicable to the average business. The organizations seeking tax exemptions are usually: 501(c)(3) Public Charities and Private Foundations; 501(c)(4) Civic Leagues, Social Welfare Organizations, and Local Associations of Employees; 501(c)(5) Labor, Agricultural, and Horticultural Organizations; 501(c)(6) Business Leagues, Chambers of Commerce, Real Estate Boards, Etc.; 501(c)(7) Social and Recreation Clubs; 501(c)(19) Post or Organization of Past or Present Members of the Armed Forces; 501(c)(20) Group Legal Services Plan Organizations (